A case control study in BMC Sagar to assess the risk factors of COPD

Ramesh Pandey, Shikha Pandey


Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as a disease which is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. COPD is a major health concern in India in terms of morbidity and mortality. In a developing country like India, it is a big challenge to limit the growing burden of COPD. A case control study was carried out at Bundelkhand Medical College (BMC) Hospital, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India

Methods: There were a total of 323 COPD cases and 325 controls which were taken from the patients attending the department of Medicine of BMC. The diagnosis was made by using the standard clinical criteria and was confirmed by spirometry, chest X-ray and Computed Tomography thorax as and when required. A detailed clinical history regarding age, sex, residence, smoking and type of cooking fuel used at home was taken by using predesigned questionnaire.

Results: This study shows that proportion of male was higher in case group than in controls. Large percentage of cases of COPD had history of smoking as compared to controls. Mean pack-years of COPD patients was higher as compared to controls.

Conclusions: Exposures to active smoking and environment tobacco smoke (ETS) both were found as important risk factors for COPD. Of the other important risk factors were exposure to solid fuel smoke at home mainly in females.


COPD, ETS, Smoking

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