DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20201080

A study of aetiology and clinical profile of 50 patients presenting with pancytopenia

Janak G. Chokshi, Bhargavkumar I. Patel, Ishvarlal M. Parmar, Dipen R. Damor

Abstract


Background: Pancytopenia is reduction of all the three cellular components which includes anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Pancytopenia is striking feature of many serious and life threatening illness ranging from simple drug induced bone marrow hypoplasia, megaloblastic marrow to fatal bone marrow aplasia and leukemias. Pancytopenia has variety of etiologies but most common and reversible is Vitamin B12 deficiency, so early and accurate diagnosis may be lifesaving.

Methods: Study conducted prospectively in 50 patients of pancytopenia with age >12 years, who were admitted to department of medicine in Dr. M.K. Shah Medical College between 2018 to 2020. A complete clinical history and examination was carried out. They were evaluated for complete blood count with peripheral smear, liver function test, renal function test, vitamin B12 level, radiological imaging and bone marrow examination in selected patients.

Results: The etiological causes of pancytopenia were recorded as vitamin B12 deficiency (n 30,60%), Infections (n11,22%),Hypersplenism (n 4;8%), aplastic anemia (n 3; 6%), Drug induced (n 1; 2%) and SLE (n1; 2%). Presenting symptoms in these patients were lethargy, malaise, generalized weakness, dyspnoea on exertion and fever while signs were pallor, splenomegaly and hyperpigmentation. All patients of megaloblastic anemia had macrocytic picture in peripheral smear and all of them were improved after treatment with vitamin B12 supplement.

Conclusions: Pancytopenia is not an uncommon clinical entity and has various etiologies. Most common cause of pancytopenia was B12 deficiency and most common symptoms and signs were generalized weakness and pallor respectively. Most of the etiological causes could be diagnosed with laboratory analysis and radiological imaging without the need of a bone marrow examination.


Keywords


Megaloblastic anemia, Myelodysplastic syndrome, Pancytopenia, Vitamin B12 deficiency

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