Comparison of autocorrelation between CV-RISK independent variables in groups with and without history of cardiovascular diseases

Ivany Lestari Goutama, Hendsun ., Yohanes Firmansyah, Ernawati Su


Background: Cardiovascular relative risk (CVRISK) is the latest cardiovascular relative risk score to evaluate the magnitude of cardiovascular risk in healthy people regardless of age and cardiovascular risk severity. The aim of the study is to determine the correlation between each independent variables of CVRISK score in individuals with and without history of cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Methods: The study design is cross-sectional study. We conducted it online through social media using Google forms from June to August 2020. Participants include all productive age groups from 16 to 60 years. The data were processed using excel and statistically tested. Descriptive data analysis uses tabulated data which is displayed in numbers or proportions (categorical) and single data distribution (numeric). Statistical association analysis uses the categorical-correlation test with 2 statistical tests that use eta on nominal-ordinal variables and contingency coefficients on nominal-nominal variables.

Results: There is a strong autocorrelation between hypertension and high tryglyceride levels (p value 0.001; correlation 0.549; risks 30.14%), nutritional status and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in CVD group (p value 0.002; correlation 0.774; risks 59.90%) and non-CVD group (p value 0.000; correlation 0.757; risks 57.3%). Hypertension and risky LDL-C levels firmly proves a very strong correlations and significant relationship in CVD groups (p value 0.014; correlation 0.947; risks 89.68%).

Conclusions: There is a correlation that varies from weak to very strong among the independent variables in the CVRISK scoring of the participants. Further research is needed to determine the potentiality of CVRISK as an early prevention in determining the cardiovascular risk of individuals with and without history of CVD.


Cardiovascular disease, Risk factors, CVRISK, New CVD score

Full Text:



World Health Organization. Cardiovascular Diseases. World Health Organization. 2017. Available at:

World Health Organization. Cardiovascular Diseases Fact Sheets. World Health Organization. 2016. Available at:

World Heart Federation. Risk Factors. World Heart Federation. 2017. Available at:

Zdrenghea D, Guşetu G, Zdrenghea M, Cismaru G, Caloian B, Vaidean G, et al. CV RISK – A New Relative Cardiovascular Risk Score. Med Hypotheses. 2019;132:27-30.

Piepoli MF, Hoes AW, Agewall S, Albus C, Brotons C, Catapano AL, et al. 2016 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. Eur Heart J. 2016;37(29):2315-81.

Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, Buroker AB, Goldberger ZD, Hahn EJ, et al. ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019;40:596-646.

Preiss D, Kristensen SL. The New Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator. Can J Cardiol. 2015;31(5):613-9.

Kanter R, Caballero B. Global Gender Disparities in Obesity: A Review. Adv Nutr. 2012;3(4):491-8.

Hinnouho GM, Czernichow S, Dugravot A, Batty GD, Kivimaki M, Singh-Manoux A. Metabolically Healthy Obesity and Risk of Mortality: Does the Definition of Metabolic Health Matter? Diabetes Care. 2013;36(8):2294-300.

Ortega FB, Lavie CJ, Blair SN. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation Research. 2016;118(11):1752-70.

Unamuno X, Gómez-Ambrosi J, Rodríguez A, Becerril S, Frühbeck G, Catalán V. Adipokine Dysregulation and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Human Obesity. Eur J Clin Invest. 2018;48(9):12997.

Aprahamian TR, Sam F. Adiponectin in Cardiovascular Inflammation and Obesity. Int J Inflam. 2011;376909.

Balsan GA, Da Costa Vieira JL, De Oliveira AM, Portal VL. Relationship between Adiponectin, Obesity and Insulin Resistance. Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira. 2015;535906.

Juhola J, Oikonen M, Magnussen CG, Mikkilä V, Siitonen N, Jokinen E, et al. Childhood Physical, Environmental, and Genetic Predictors of Adult Hypertension: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Circulation. 2012;126(4):402-9.

Gutierrez J, Alloubani A, Mari M, Alzaatreh M. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity among Tabuk Citizens in Saudi Arabia. Open Cardiovasc Med J. 2018;12:41-9.

Bays HE, Toth PP, Kris-Etherton PM, Abate N, Aronne LJ, Brown WV, et al. Obesity, Adiposity, and Dyslipidemia: A Consensus Statement from the National Lipid Association. J Clin Lipidol. 2013;7(4):304-83.

Franssen R, Monajemi H, Stroes ESG, Kastelein JJP. Obesity and Dyslipidemia. Med Clin North Am. 2011;95(5):893-902.

Xiao C, Dash S, Morgantini C, Hegele RA, Lewis GF. Pharmacological Targeting of The Atherogenic Dyslipidemia Complex: The Next Frontier in CVD Prevention Beyond Lowering LDL Cholesterol. Diabetes. 2016;65(7):1767-78.

Cameron AJ, Magliano DJ, Söderberg S. A Systematic Review of the Impact of Including Both Waist and Hip Circumference in Risk Models for Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes and Mortality. Obesity Reviews. 2013;14(1):86-94.

Grundy SM. Adipose Tissue and Metabolic Syndrome: Too Much, Too Little or Neither. Eur J Clin Invest. 2015;45(11):1209-17.

Garg R, Aggarwal S, Kumar R, Sharma G. Association of Atherosclerosis with Dyslipidemia and Comorbid Conditions: A Descriptive Study. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2015;6(1):163-8.

Ariyanti R, Besral B. Dyslipidemia Associated with Hypertension Increases the Risks for Coronary Heart Disease: A Case-Control Study in Harapan Kita Hospital, National Cardiovascular Center, Jakarta. J Lipids. 2019;2517013.

Iskandar I, Hadi A, Alfridsyah A. Faktor Risiko Terjadinya Penyakit Jantung Koroner pada Pasien Rumah Sakit Umum Meuraxa Banda Aceh. AcTion Aceh Nutr J. 2017;2(1).

Boo S, Froelicher ES. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and 10-year Risk for Coronary Heart Disease in Korean Women. Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci). 2012;6(1):1-8.

Gulati A, Dalal J, Padmanabhan TNC, Jain P, Patil S, Vasnawala H. Lipitension: Interplay between Dyslipidemia and Hypertension. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012;16(2): 240-5.

Firmansyah Y, Prawiro EL. Sistem Skoring untuk Memprediksi Kejadian Hipertensi pada Usia Produktif di Kota Medan (Preliminary Study). J Muara Sains, Teknol Kedokteran, dan Ilmu Kesehat. 2020;4(1):55-68.

Bachmann JM, Willis BL, Ayers CR, Khera A, Berry JD. Association between Family History and Coronary Heart Disease Death Across Long-term Follow-up in Men: The Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. Circulation. 2012;125(25):3092-8.

Imes CC, Lewis FM. Family History of Cardiovascular Disease, Perceived Cardiovascular Disease Risk, and Health-related Behavior: A Review of the Literature. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2014;29(2):108-29.

Kim MK, Han K, Joung HN, Baek KH, Song KH, Kwon HS. Cholesterol Levels and Development of Cardiovascular Disease in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Without Pre-existing Cardiovascular Disease. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2019;18(1):1-11.

Keto J, Ventola H, Jokelainen J, Linden K, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Timonen M, et al. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Relation to Smoking Behaviour and History: A Population-based Cohort Study. Open Heart. 2016;3(2):000358.

Ahn N, Kim K. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) in Cardiovascular Disease: Effect of Exercise Training. Integr Med Res. 2016;5(3): 212-5.

Shin Y, Kim Y. Association between Psychosocial Stress and Cardiovascular Disease in Relation to Low Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables in Middle-aged Men. Nutrients. 2019;11(8):1915.

Scherer DJ, Nicholls SJ. Lowering Triglycerides to Modify Cardiovascular Risk: Will Icosapent Deliver? Vascular Health and Risk Management. 2015;11:203-9.

Brandhorst S, Longo VD. Dietary Restrictions and Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation Research. 2019;124(6):952-65.

Suman C. Aerobic Exercise Programme and Reduction in Body Weight and Body Mass Index (BMI). Galore Int J Heal Sci Res. 2016;1(1):41-4.

Wang Y, Xu D. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Lipids and Lipoproteins. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2017;132.

Goldberg AC, Hopkins PN, Toth PP, Ballantyne CM, Rader DJ, Robinson JG, et al. Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Screening, Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric and Adult Patients: Clinical Guidance from The National Lipid Association Expert Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolemia. J Clin Lipidol. 2011;5(3):S1-8.

Ekelund U, Steene-Johannessen J, Brown WJ, Fagerland MW, Owen N, Powell KE, et al. Does Physical Activity Attenuate, or Even Eliminate, the Detrimental Association of Sitting Time with Mortality? A Harmonised Meta-Analysis of Data from More Than 1 Million Men and Women. Lancet. 2016;388(10051):1302-10.

Välimäki IA, Vuorimaa T, Ahotupa M, Vasankari TJ. Strenuous Physical Exercise Accelerates the Lipid Peroxide Clearing Transport by HDL. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016;116(9):1683-91.

Tiainen S, Luoto R, Ahotupa M, Raitanen J, Vasankari T. 6-mo Aerobic Exercise Intervention Enhances The Lipid Peroxide Transport Function of HDL. Free Radic Res. 2016;50(11):1279-85..