DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20203991

A cross sectional observational study about the relationship between body mass index and severity of asthma in children aged 6 to 14 years

Rugma Karunakaran, Rati Santhakumar, Johny Vincent

Abstract


Background: The effects of obesity on asthma severity, diagnosis and control are increasingly recognized. Primary objective of our study was to find out the relationship between BMI and severity of asthma in children. Secondary objectives were to study associated co-morbid conditions viz., atopic eczema and allergic rhinitis in children with asthma and the relationship between family history of asthma, atopy and allergic rhinitis with severity of asthma.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in the tertiary care centre in Thrissur, Kerala. Children of age 6 to 14 years diagnosed as asthma according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines were included. One hundred children qualified for the study during the stipulated time period. Children with symptoms and signs of asthma, were classified to intermittent and persistent based on GINA guidelines. BMI was calculated in all. Preliminary details and details on the risk factors were collected.

Results: Mean age of the study population is 8.8 years. The study group had male predominance (57%). 39% had mild intermittent, 33% had mild persistent, 22% had moderate persistent and 6% had severe persistent asthma. Intermittent, mild persistent and moderate persistent were grouped as non-severe. 50% children had normal BMI, 28% were overweight and 22% underweight. Family history of asthma and atopic dermatitis was 47% and 38% respectively. Maximum children belonged to low socioeconomic status.

Conclusion: Did not find any statistically significant association between severity and duration of asthma with obesity or overweight in children with asthma (p>0.05).

 


Keywords


Asthma, BMI, Obesity, Atopy

Full Text:

PDF

References


Redd SC. Asthma in the United States burden and current theories. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110(4):557-60.

Mokdad A, Serdula M, Dietz W, Bowman B, Marks J, Koplan J. The spread of the obesity epidemic in the US. JAMA. 1999;282:1519-22.

Asher MI, Barry D, Clayton T, Crane J, D'Souza W, Ellwood P et al. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase One. The burden of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema in children and adolescents in six New Zealand centres: ISAAC Phase One. N Z Med J. 2001;114(1128).

ISAAC Steering Committee: Worldwide variation in prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema: ISAAC. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Steering Committee. Lancet. 1998;351:1221-32.

Mannino DM, Homa DM, Redd SC: Involuntary smoking and asthma severity in children: data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination survey. Chest. 2002;122:409-15.

Pekkanen J, Xu B, Jarvelin MR: Gestational age and occurrence of atopy at age 31: a prospective birth cohort study in Finland. Clin Exp Allergy. 2001;31:95-102.

Woolcock AJ, Peat JK: Evidence for the increase in asthma worldwide. Ciba Found Symp. 1997;206:122-34.

GINA-Global strategy for Asthma Prevention and Management. GINA report 2016-Updated 2016 available at- www.ginasthma.org. Accessed on 25 August 2020.

Institute of Medicine (U.S.) Committee on Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2020. Leading health indicators for healthy people 2020: letter report. Available at: https://www.nap.edu/catalog/

/leading-health-indicators-for-healthy-people-2020-letter-report. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

Daniels SR, Khoury PR, Morrison JA: The utility of body mass index as a measure of body fatness in children and adolescents: differences by race and gender. Pediatrics. 1997;99:804-7.

Roche AF, Siervogel RM, Chumlea C, Webb P: Grading body fatness from limited anthropometric data. Am J ClinNutr. 1981;34:2831-8.

Arbes SJ, Guob X, Orelienb J, Zeldina DC. Interaction between sex and age in the prevalence of current asthma. J Aller Cli Immunol. 2004;113:S302.

Escobar GJ, Ragins A, Li SX, Prager L, Masaquel AS, Kipnis P. Recurrent wheezing in the third year of life among children born at 32 weeks' gestation or later: relationship to laboratory-confirmed, medically attended infection with respiratory syncytial virus during the first year of life. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010;164(10):915-22.

Mitchell EA, Clayton T, García-Marcos L, Pearce N, Foliaki S,Wong G. Birthweight and the risk of atopic diseases: the ISAAC Phase III study. Pediatr Aller Immunol. 2014;25(3):264-70.

Miyake Y, Tanaka K. Lack of relationship between birth conditions and allergic disorders in Japanese children aged 3 years. J Asthma. 2013;50(6):555-9.

Oddy WH. Breastfeeding and asthma in children: findings from a West Australian study. Breastfeed Rev. 2000;8:5-11.

Sears MR, Greene JM, Willan AR, Taylor DR, Flannery EM, Cowan JO et al. Long-term relation between breastfeeding and development of atopy and asthma in children and young adults: a longitudinal study. Lancet. 2002;360(9337):901-7.

Schachter LM, Peat JK, Salome CM. Asthma and atopy in overweight children. Thorax. 2003;58:1031-5.

Carlsten C, Ward HD, Ferguson A, Watson W, Rousseau R, Annedybuncio et al Atopic dermatitis in a high-risk cohort: natural history, associated allergic outcomes, and risk factors. 2013;110(1):24-150.

Liu T, Valdez R, Yoon PW, Crocker D, Moonesinghe R, Khoury MJ. The association between family history of asthma and the prevalence of asthma among US adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,1999-2004. Genetics in medicine. 2009;11:323-32

Littlejohns P, Macdonald LD. The relationship between severe asthma and social class. Respir Med. 1993;87:139-43

Aggarwal AN, Chaudhry K, Chhabra SK, D’Souza GA, Gupta D, Jindal SK et al. Prevalence and risk factors for bronchial asthma in Indian adults: A multicentre study. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2006;48:13-22

Mandhane P, Sears M, Poulton R, Greene J, Lou W, Taylor D, et al. Cats and dogs and the risk of atopy in childhood and adulthood. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124:745-50.

Carta P, Aru G, Carta L, Carta R, Casula F, Caracoi S, et al. A Respiratory risk among students in an industrialized area of Sardinia: role of smoking and air pollution. G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2007;29(3):824-7.

Halterman JS, Szilagyi PG, Yoos JL, Conn KM, Kaczorowski JM, Holzhauer RJ et al. Benefits of a school-based asthma treatment program in the absence of secondhand smoke exposure. Arch Pediatr Adolesc med. 2004;158(5):460-7.