DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20205472

Study of the pattern, intent behind and outcome of acute poisoning in a tertiary care centre

G. Srinivas, Y. S. Aashik, Manoj Muthalik

Abstract


Background: Acute poisoning is one of the major medical emergencies with significant morbidity and mortality. Appropriate planning, prevention and management techniques can be designed by knowing the nature, severity and outcome of acute poisoning cases. Most of the poisoning is due to the intention of deliberate self-harm. This study aimed to study the pattern and outcome of acute poisoning and the intent behind poisoning.  

Methods: This is a cross sectional study which included 100 acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital. The study includes data regarding age, sex, time elapsed after intake of poison; name of the poisonous substance, duration of hospitalization, severity and outcome were collected in the prestructured proforma. Intent behind poisoning was calculated using Beck’s suicide intent score.  

Results: Incidence was more common among males (69%) but there was no significant correlation between gender and mortality. Mean age of presentation was 35.66 years but age of presentation and mortality correlation was not statistically significant (t=0.92, p=0.3). Organophosphorous compound poisoning (36%) was the most common type of poisoning. Total mortality was found to be 12%. Beck’s suicide intent scores were higher in patients who died and statistically significant (t=8.96, p=0.0001). Maximum patients expired when there was a delay in admission to hospital by more than 8 hours after exposure.  

Conclusions: Poisoning is more common in young males. The overall mortality depends on type of poison, time elapsed since exposure to hospital arrival, suicidal intent and many other factors. Early care in a tertiary care center may help to reduce mortality in India.


Keywords


Acute poisoning, Pattern and outcome, Tertiary care hospital, Beck’s suicide intent score

Full Text:

PDF

References


Konradsen F, Dawson AH, Eddleston M, Gunnell D. Pesticide self-poisoning: Thinking outside the box. Lancet. 2007;369:169–70.

Thundiyil JG, Stober J, Besbelli N, Pronczuk J. Acute pesticide poisoning: A proposed classification tool. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:205–9.

Eddleston M, Buckley NA, Eyer P, Dawson AH. Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Lancet. 2008;371:597–607.

Marecek J. Culture, gender, and suicidal behavior in Sri Lanka. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 1998;28:69–81.

McClure GM. Suicide in children and adolescents in England and wales 1970-1998. Br J Psychiatry. 2001;178:469–74.

Singh O, Javeri Y, Juneja D, Gupta M, Singh G, Dang R, et al. Profile and outcome of patients with acute toxicity admitted in intensive care unit: Experiences from a major corporate hospital in urban India. Indian J Anaesth. 2011;55:370–4.

Ahuja H, Mathai AS, Pannu A, Arora R. Acute poisonings admitted to a tertiary level Intensive Care Unit in Northern India: Patient profile and outcomes. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015;9:UC01–4.

Srivastava A, Peshin SS, Kaleekal T, Gupta SK. An epidemiological study of poisoning cases reported to the National Poisons Information Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2005;24:279–85.

Das RK. Epidemiology of Insecticide poisoining at A.I.I.M.S Emergency Services and role of its detection by gas liquid chromatography in diagnosis. Medico update. 2007;7:49–60.

David G, Michael E, Michael RP, Flemming K. The global distribution of fatal pesticide self-poisoning: Systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:357.

Murali R, Bhalla A, Singh D, Singh S. Acute pesticide poisoning: 15 years’ experience of a large North-West Indian hospital. Clinic Toxicol. 2009;47(1):35–8.

Rajbanshi LK, Arjyal B, Mandal R. Clinical profile and outcome of patients with acute poisoning admitted in intensive care unit of tertiary care center in Eastern Nepal. Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine: Peer-reviewed, Official Publication of Ind Soc Critic Care Medic. 2018;22(10):691.

Unnikrishnan B, Singh B, Rajeev A. Trends of acute poisoning in South Karnataka. Kathmandu Univ Med J. 2005;3:149–54.

Kumar SV, Venkateswarlu B, Sasikala M, Kumar GV. A study on poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital. J Natu Sci Biol Medic. 2010;1(1):35.

Arulmurugan C, Ahmed S, Gani M. A retrospective study of paradigm and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India. Int J Res Med Sci. 2017;3:2654-7.

Dash SK, Aluri SR, Mohanty MK, Patnaik KK, Mohanty S. Sociodemographic profile of poisoning cases. J Ind Acad Forens Medic. 2005;27:133–8.

Tagwireyi D, Ball DE, Nhachi CF. Poisoning in Zimbabwe: A survey of eight major referral hospitals. J Appl Toxicol. 2002;22:99–105.

Singh S, Sharma BK, Wahi PL. Spectrum of acute poisoning in adults. J Assoc Physic Ind. 1984;32:561–3.

Thomas M, Anandan S, Kuruvilla PJ, Singh PR, David S. Profile of hospital admissions following acute poisoning-experiences from a major teaching hospital in south India. Adv Drug React Toxicol Rev. 2000;19:313–7.

Rajasuriya R, Awang R, Hashim SB, Rahmat HR. Profile of poisoning admissions in Malaysia. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2007;26:73–81.

Agarval SB. Study of 190 cases of organophosphorus poisoning. J Assoc Physic Ind. 1989;31:66.