DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20221359
Published: 2022-05-24

Impact of consumption of brown rice on glycaemic and lipid profile in type 2 diabetics

Jagadeeswar Reddy Mitta, Dharma Rao Vanamali, Himavathy K. Gara

Abstract


Background: Along with pharmacotherapy and exercise, nutrition is also instrumental in comprehensive management of diabetes mellitus (DM). The study aimed to determine the effects of brown rice substitution on glycaemic and lipid profile in patients of type 2 DM.

Methods: A hospital-based, non-blinded, randomized interventional study was conducted for 3-months period on DM patients in which brown rice substitution was assigned to the study group and the control group consumed regular white rice. Compliance for diet and medication was assured with telephonic interviews. Their glycaemic and lipid profile were analysed before the start of intervention and after 3-months and results were compared.

Results: FBG, PPBG and HbA1c were significantly reduced in both study (n=95) and control (n=98) groups after the interventional period, with greater reduction in the study group. In the study group, there was significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, total and LDL cholesterol and increase in levels of HDL cholesterol after the intervention as compared to that of the control group.

Conclusions: Substitution of brown rice with white rice for period of 3 months was associated with better glycaemic control and lipid profile. It has potential as a feasible and sustainable dietary intervention for DM with significant health benefits.


Keywords


DM, Brown rice, Glycaemic profile, Lipid profile

Full Text:

PDF

References


India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative Diabetes Collaborators. The increasing burden of diabetes and variations among the states of India: The Global Burden of Disease Study 1990-2016. Lancet Glob Health. 2018;6(12):e1352-62.

Oberoi S, Kansra P. Economic menace of diabetes in India. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2020:1-12.

Eshwari K, Kamath VG. Rao CR. Kamath A. Annual cost incurred for the management of type-2 diabetes mellitus-a community-based study from coastal Karnataka. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2019;39(3):590-595.

American Diabetes Association. 5. Facilitating behaviour change and well-being to improve health outcomes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2021. Diabetes Care. 2021;44(1):S53-72.

Chawla R, Madhu SV, Makkar BM. RSSDI-ESI Clinical Practice Recommendations for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 2020. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2020;24(1):1-122.

Radhika G, Sathya RM, Ganesan A, Saroja R, Vijayalakshmi P, Sudha V et al. Dietary profile of urban adult population in South India in the context of chronic disease epidemiology (CURES-68). Public Health Nutr. 2010; 12:1-8.

Shobana S, Lakshmipriya N, Bai MR, Gayathri R, Ruchi V, Sudha V et al. Even minimal polishing of an Indian parboiled brown rice variety leads to increased glycemic responses. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017;26(5):829-36.

Wu W, Qiu J, Wang A, Li Z. Impact of whole cereals and processing on type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2020;60:1447-74.

Bhavadharini B, Mohan V, Dehghan M, Rangarajan S, Swaminathan S, Rosengren A et al. White Rice Intake and Incident Diabetes: A Study of 132,373 Participants in 21 Countries.Diabetes Care. 2020;43(11):2643-50.

Bell DS, O'Keefe JH, Jellinger P. Postprandial dysmetabolism: the missing link between diabetes and cardiovascular events? EndocrPract. 2008;14(1):112-24.

O'Keefe JH, Bell DS. Postprandial hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia (postprandial dysmetabolism) is a cardiovascular risk factor. Am J Cardiol. 2007;100(5):899-904.

Ravichanthiran K, Ma ZF, Zhang H, Cao Y, Wang CW, Muhammad S et al. Phytochemical Profile of Brown Rice and Its Nutrigenomic Implications. Antioxidants (Basel). 2018;7(6):71.

Boers HM, Seijen Ten Hoorn J, Mela DJ. A systematic review of the influence of rice characteristics and processing methods on postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Br J Nutr. 2015;114(7):1035-45.

Saleh ASM, Wang P, Wang N, Yang L, Xiao Z. Brown Rice Versus White Rice: Nutritional Quality, Potential Health Benefits, Development of Food Products, and Preservation Technologies. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2019;18(4):1070-96.

Abubakar B, Zawawi N, Omar AR, Ismail M. Predisposition to insulin resistance and obesity due to staple consumption of rice: Amylose content versus germination status. PLoS One. 2017;12(7):e0181309.

Mohan V, Spiegelman D, Sudha V, Gayathri R, Hong B, Praseena K et al. Effect of brown rice, white rice, and brown rice with legumes on blood glucose and insulin responses in overweight Asian Indians: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2014;16(5):317-25.

American Diabetes Association. 2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2021. Diabetes Care. 2021;44(1):S15-33.

O'Keefe JH, Gheewala NM, O'Keefe JO. Dietary strategies for improving post-prandial glucose, lipids, inflammation, and cardiovascular health. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51(3):249-55.

Lampman RM, Schteingart DE. Effects of exercise training on glucose training on glucose control, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in hypertriglyceridemia and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991;23(6):703-12.

Lee YM, Kim SA, Lee IK, Kim JG, Park KG, Jeong JY et al. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial. PLoS One. 2016;11(6):e0155918.

Zhang G, Pan A, Zong G, Yu Z, Wu H, Chen X et al. Substituting white rice with brown rice for 16 weeks does not substantially affect metabolic risk factors in middle-aged Chinese men and women with diabetes or a high risk for diabetes. J Nutr. 2011;141(9):1685-90.

Ojo O, Ojo OO, Adebowale F, Wang XH. The Effect of Dietary Glycaemic Index on Glycaemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2018;10(3):373.

Ou S, Kwok K, Li Y, Fu L. In vitro study of possible role of dietary fiber in lowering postprandial serum glucose. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49(2):1026-9.

Wedick NM, Sudha V, Spiegelman D, Bai MR, Malik VS, Venkatachalam SS et al. Study design and methods for a randomized crossover trial substituting brown rice for white rice on diabetes risk factors in India. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2015;66(7):797-804.

Hsu TF, Kise M, Wang MF, Ito Y, Yang MD, Aoto H, Yoshihara R, Yokoyama J, Kunii D, Yamamoto S. Effects of pre-germinated brown rice on blood glucose and lipid levels in free-living patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2008;54(2):163-8.

Ho JN, Son ME, Lim WC, Lim ST, Cho HY. Anti-obesity effects of germinated brown rice extract through down-regulation of lipogenic genes in high fat diet-induced obese mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2012;76(6):1068-74.