DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20222410
Published: 2022-09-23

Emergence of monkeypox virus: a public health threat

Alla Sai Santhosha Mrudula, Deekshitha Alla, Seepana Muneesh, Thippana Sireesha, Baddi Durga Bhavani, Kanakam Vandana, Gopu Chaturya

Abstract


The human monkeypox virus is a zoonotic infection that is closely related to smallpox virus. It more commonly exists in forested habitats of western and central Africa. In the recent outbreak of the monkeypox virus, the total number of positive cases escalated to 32,760 and 12 deaths were reported so far. With rodents being primary reservoirs, the virus spreads through animals, fomites, respiratory droplets and, direct contact. It typically presents as a vesiculo-pustular rash along with fever, headache, malaise and chills. Taking this clinical spectrum into consideration, differential diagnosis to rule out smallpox is very much significant. Though there are no licensed therapies for monkeypox, treatment regimens and vaccination for small pox can also be used for monkeypox. Effective prevention relies on avoiding contact and limiting respiratory exposure with the infected patients by following standard precautions. This review article gives an insight into epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, transmission, vaccination, and prevention of infection.


Keywords


Monkeypox virus, Smallpox virus, Outbreak, Vaccination

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bunge EM, Hoet B, Chen L, Lienert F, Weidenthaler H, Baer LR et al. The changing epidemiology of human monkeypox-A potential threat? A systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2022;16(2):e0010141.

Marennikova SS, Seluhina EM, Malceva NM, Ladnyj ID. Poxviruses isolated from clinically ill and asymptomatically infected monkeys and a chimpanzee. Bull WHO. 1972;46(5):613-20.

Mileto D, Riva A, Cutrera M. New challenges in human monkeypox outside Africa: A review and case report from Italy. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2022;49:102386.

Durski KN, McCollum AM, Nakazawa Y, Petersen BW, Reynolds MG, Briand S et al. Emergence of Monkeypox-West and Central Africa, 1970-2017. Morbidity mortality weekly rep. 2018;67(10):306-10.

United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/outbreak/us-outbreaks.html. Accessed on 26 June, 2022.

World Health Organization. Available at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/situations/monkeypox-oubreak-2022. Accessed on 26 June, 2022.

World Health Organization. Available at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2022-DON381. Accessed on 26 June, 2022.

World Health Organization. Available at: https://worldhealthorg.shinyapps.io/mpx_global/

Di Giulio DB, Eckburg PB. Human monkeypox: an emerging zoonosis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4:15-25.

Mbala PK, Huggins JW, Riu-Rovira T. Maternal and fetal outcomes among pregnant women with human monkeypox infection in the Democratic Republic of Congo. J Infect Dis 2017;216:824-8.

Miura F, Van Ewijk CE, Backer JA. Estimated incubation period for monkeypox cases confirmed in the Netherlands, May 2022. Euro Surveill 2022; 27.

Monkeypox Virus Infection in the United States and Other Non-endemic Countries-2022. https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2022/han00466.asp. Accessed on 26 June, 2022.

United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Monkeypox: Clinical recognition. https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/clinicians/clinical-recognition.html. Accessed on 26 June, 2022.

Erez N, Achdout H, Milrot E. Diagnosis of imported monkeypox, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25:980-3.

Kumar N, Acharya A, Gendelman HE, Byrareddy SN. The 2022 outbreak and the pathobiology of the monkeypox virus. J Autoimmunity. 2022;102855.

World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/monkeypox. Accessed on 26 June, 2022.

Mileto D, Riva A, Cutrera M, Moschese D, Mancon A, Meroni L et al. New challenges in human monkeypox outside Africa: A review and case report from Italy. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2022;102386.

Hraib M, Jouni S, Albitar MM, Alaidi S, Alshehabi Z. The outbreak of monkeypox 2022: An overview. Ann Med Surg. 2022;24:104069.

Titanji BK, Tegomoh B, Nematollahi S, Konomos M, Kulkarni PA. Monkeypox: A Contemporary Review for Healthcare Professionals. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2022;9(7):ofac310.

Chan-Tack KM, Harrington PR, Choi SY. Assessing a drug for an eradicated human disease: US Food and Drug Administration review of tecovirimat for the treatment of smallpox. Lancet Infect Dis. 2019;19(6):e221-4.