DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20223017
Published: 2022-11-23

Characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 patients receiving treatment at Sanglah hospital for January-February 2022

Novinna Kusumawati, Pande Made Andikayasa, Gede Oky Aryanthana, Ida Bagus Ngurah Rai, Ni Wayan Candrawati Kusumawardhani, Ida Ayu Jasminarti Dwi, Ni Luh Putu Eka Arisanti, I. Gede Ketut Sajinadiyasa, Putu Andrika

Abstract


Background: The ongoing mutation of the COVID-19 virus causes an increase in transmission and a decrease in vaccine effectiveness. COVID-19 cases since the end of 2021 have continued to increase, and data on the characteristics of patients with confirmed COVID-19 at Sanglah hospital for this period is not yet available. Therefore, this study aims to determine the characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 patients who received treatment at Sanglah hospital from January to February 2022.

Methods: This study is a descriptive study using a cross-sectional approach taken from medical record data.

Results: There were 276 COVID-19 patient subjects with an average age of 53 years, consisting of 51.1% male and 48.9% female. Most occupations are private employees, 29.0%. The 39.5% of patients had mild symptoms, and 5.8% had critical symptoms. Cough (51.8%) and fever (40.6%) were the main clinical symptoms, and chronic kidney disease was the most common comorbidity at 16.7%. As many as 46.0% of COVID-19 patients have received vaccines at least 2x, and 2.9% of patients are previous COVID-19 survivors.

Conclusions: The characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 patients who received treatment at Sanglah hospital in January and February 2022 were more male than female, with the most jobs as private employees. Most patients have mild to moderate symptoms with a chief complaint of cough. Almost half of the patients have been vaccinated at least 2x. Most of them are not COVID-19 survivors.


Keywords


SARS-COV-2, Characteristics of COVID-19, Clinical symptoms, Vaccination status, Sanglah hospital

Full Text:

PDF

References


Singhal T. A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Indian J Pediatr. 2020;87(4):281-6.

Pascarella G, Strumia A, Piliego C, Bruno F, del Buono R, Costa F et al. COVID-19 diagnosis and management: a comprehensive review. J Intern Med. 2020;288(2):192-206.

Hikmawati I, Setiyabudi R. Epidemiology of COVID-19 in Indonesia: common source and propagated source as a cause for outbreaks. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2021;15(5):646-52.

Gu H, Krishnan P, Ng DYM, Chang LDJ, Liu GYZ, Cheng SSM. Probable Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant in Quarantine Hotel, Hong Kong, China, November 2021. Emerg Infect Dis. 2022;28(2):460-2.

Menni C, Valdes AM, Polidori L, Antonelli M, Penamakuri S, Nogal A, et al. Symptom prevalence, duration, and risk of hospital admission in individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 during periods of omicron and delta variant dominance: a prospective observational study from the ZOE COVID Study. The Lancet. 2022.

Naqvi AAT, Fatima K, Mohammad T, Fatima U, Singh IK, Singh A et al. Insights into SARS-CoV-2 genome, structure, evolution, pathogenesis and therapies: Structural genomics approach. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Basis of Disease. 2020;1866(10):165878.

Gitman MR, Shaban M V, Paniz-Mondolfi AE, Sordillo EM. Laboratory Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia. Diagnostics. 2021;11.

Wang C, Wang Z, Wang G, Lau JYN, Zhang K, Li W. COVID-19 in early 2021: current status and looking forward. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2021;6(1):114.

Konings F, Perkins MD, Kuhn JH, Pallen MJ, Alm EJ, Archer BN et al. SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Interest and Concern naming scheme conducive for global discourse. Nat Microbiol. 2021;6(7):821-3.

Ahmad FB, Cisewski JA, Miniño A, Anderson RN. Provisional Mortality Data - United States, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021;70(14):519-22.

Stokes EK, Zambrano LD, Anderson KN, Marder EP, Raz KM, El Burai Felix S, et al. Coronavirus Disease 2019 Case Surveillance-United States, January 22-May 30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(24):759-65.

Gebhard C, Regitz-Zagrosek V, Neuhauser HK, Morgan R, Klein SL. Impact of sex and gender on COVID-19 outcomes in Europe. Biol Sex Differ. 2020;11(1):29.

Finelli L, Gupta V, Petigara T, Yu K, Bauer KA, Puzniak LA. Mortality Among US Patients Hospitalized With SARS-CoV-2 Infection in 2020. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(4):e216556.

Sze S, Pan D, Nevill CR, Gray LJ, Martin CA, Nazareth J et al. Ethnicity and clinical outcomes in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. E-Clin Med. 2020;29:100630.

Lotfi M, Hamblin MR, Rezaei N. COVID-19: Transmission, prevention, and potential therapeutic opportunities. Clin Chim Acta. 2020;508:254-66.

Wiersinga WJ, Rhodes A, Cheng AC, Peacock SJ, Prescott HC. Pathophysiology, Transmission, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review. JAMA. 2020;324(8):782-93.

Lardone RD, Garay YC, Parodi P, de la Fuente S, Angeloni G, Bravo EO et al. How glycobiology can help us treat and beat the COVID-19 pandemic. J Biol Chem. 2021;296:100375.

Yuki K, Fujiogi M, Koutsogiannaki S. COVID-19 pathophysiology: A review. Clin Immunol. 2020;215:108427.

Conti P, Ronconi G, Caraffa A, Gallenga C, Ross R, Frydas I et al. Induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and IL-6) and lung inflammation by Coronavirus-19 (COVI-19 or SARS-CoV-2): anti-inflammatory strategies. Vol. 34, Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents. Italy. 2020;327-31.

Hirabara SM, Serdan TDA, Gorjao R, Masi LN, Pithon-Curi TC, Covas DT et al. SARS-COV-2 Variants: Differences and Potential of Immune Evasion. Frontiers in Cellular Infect Microbiol. 2022;11.

Abou-Ismail MY, Diamond A, Kapoor S, Arafah Y, Nayak L. The hypercoagulable state in COVID-19: Incidence, pathophysiology, and management. Thromb Res. 2020;194:101-15.

Tsai PH, Lai WY, Lin YY, Luo YH, Lin YT, Chen HK, et al. Clinical manifestation and disease progression in COVID-19 infection. J Chinese Med Asso. 2021;84(1).

Da Rosa Mesquita R, Francelino Silva Junior LC, Santos Santana FM, Farias de Oliveira T, Campos Alcântara R, Monteiro Arnozo G et al. Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in the general population: systematic review. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2020;133(7-8):377-82.

Zhu J, Zhong Z, Ji P, Li H, Li B, Pang J et al. Clinicopathological characteristics of 8697 patients with COVID-19 in China: a meta-analysis. Fam Med Community Health. 2020;8(2):e000406.

Ho FK, Petermann-Rocha F, Gray SR, Jani BD, Katikireddi SV, Niedzwiedz CL et al. Is older age associated with COVID-19 mortality in the absence of other risk factors? General population cohort study of 470,034 participants. PLoS One. 2020;15(11):e0241824.

Jin JM, Bai P, He W, Wu F, Liu XF, Han DM et al. Gender Differences in Patients With COVID-19: Focus on Severity and Mortality. Front Public Health. 2020;8:152.

Gao Y dong, Ding M, Dong X, Zhang J jin, Kursat Azkur A, Azkur D et al. Risk factors for severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients: A review. Allergy. 2021;76(2):428-55.

Li X, Zhong X, Wang Y, Zeng X, Luo T, Liu Q. Clinical determinants of the severity of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2021;16(5):e0250602.

Pascarella G, Strumia A, Piliego C, Bruno F, Del Buono R, Costa F et al. COVID-19 diagnosis and management: a comprehensive review. J Intern Med. 2020;288(2):192-206.

Wang YH, Wu CC, Bai CH, Lu SC, Yang YP, Lin YY et al. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of COVID-19 antigen tests: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Chinese Med Asso. 2021;84(11).

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia (Kemenkes). Panduan Tatalaksana COVID-19 Edisi ke 4. 4th ed. 2022.

Tan DHS, Chan AK, Jüni P, Tomlinson G, Daneman N, Walmsley S et al. Post-exposure prophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2 in close contacts of confirmed COVID-19 cases (CORIPREV): study protocol for a cluster-randomized trial. Trials. 2021;22(1):224.

Morgenstern J, Redondo JN, Olavarria A, Rondon I, Roca S, de Leon A et al. Ivermectin as a SARS-CoV-2 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Method in Healthcare Workers: A Propensity Score-Matched Retrospective Cohort Study. Cureus. 2021;13(8):e17455.

Abou-Ismail MY, Diamond A, Kapoor S, Arafah Y, Nayak L. The hypercoagulable state in COVID-19: Incidence, pathophysiology, and management. Thromb Res. 2020;194:101-15.

Huang C, Huang L, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Gu X et al. 6-month consequences of COVID-19 in patients discharged from hospital: a cohort study. Lancet. 2021;397(10270):220-32.

Sheehan MM, Reddy AJ, Rothberg MB. Reinfection Rates Among Patients Who Previously Tested Positive for Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2021;73(10):18826.

Yifan M, Wu P, Lu W, Liu K, Ma K, Huang L et al. Sex-specific clinical characteristics and prognosis of coronavirus disease-19 infection in Wuhan, China: A retrospective study of 168 severe patients. PLOS Pathogens. 2020;16:e1008520.

Sharma G, Volgman AS, Michos ED. Sex Differences in Mortality From COVID-19 Pandemic: Are Men Vulnerable and Women Protected? JACC: Case Rep. 2020;2(9):1407-10.

Alkhouli M, Nanjundappa A, Annie F, Bates MC, Bhatt DL. Sex Differences in Case Fatality Rate of COVID-19: Insights from a Multinational Registry. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2020;95(8):1613-20.